Reflection can refer to a number of different processes from thinking back over events on the way home from work to formal journals to drive learning and assessment.

Effective reflection is of course reliant on accurate self assessment.  It is well recognised that the least able trainees are the least able to accurately self assess. (Coltart et al 2008). Such shortfalls in competence can be identified and managed sooner rather than later.  Interestingly, more junior trainees are engaging better with the process, perhaps because reflection is so firmly embedded in the Foundation e-Portfolio (Goodyear et al  2013).